1 This certificate is issued based on tests performed on DNA samples to PiGen by accredited veterinarians and/or FCI officials appointed by the persons that confirmed, on the date of DNA sampling, to be the respective owners of the pigeons with the ringnumbers mentioned in this certificate.
2 DNA testing is done according to internationally agreed Pigeon Panel and recommendations by ISAG (International Society of Animal Genetics). The testing labs are certified according NEN-EN-ISO 9001. The probability of exclusion (PE) of this parentage verification is higher than 99,9%.
3 The following DNA markers are scientifically associated with racing performance;
LDHA is a gene for a lactate dehydrogenase enzyme.
DRD4 or dopamine receptor 4 gene is an indicator for character traits.
CRY1 or cryptochrome 1 gene codes for a protein in the retina of the eye.
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) is a gene important for synapse formation in the brain and the nerve-muscle connection.
LDL Receptor related Protein 8 (LRP8) is a gene important for the growth of the hippocampus inside the brain. The hippocampus is important for recognition of geographic structures and navigational abilities.
Glutathion-diSulfide-Reductase (GSR) is a protein that is associated with magnetoreception abilities.